Hybrid war

This little-known military concept intended to capture the complex character of contemporary warfare has, since the Russian aggression against Ukraine in 2014, become a staple of European security and defence debates. Being criticized by some as vague and unhelpful and promoted by others as a useful label for a range of malign foreign activities on European territory (and beyond), hybrid warfare transformed the European understanding of security. The research at the IIR concerns many issues related to the concept, ranging from analysis of potential hybrid threats and resilience against them on the one hand, to critical interrogation of the notion of hybrid warfare and its usages on the other.